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published Jan 2012

The Economic Impact of the South Dakota Snowmobiling Industry

by University of South Dakota

South Dakota’s snowmobile trail system is maintained without any contribution from general fund dollars, but brings substantial economic activity into the state. This study estimates the magnitude of that economic activity and its effect on the overall state economy.


published Mar 2020

The Economic Value of Trails in Arizona

As a compliment to the Arizona State Parks 2020 Trails Plan, this study estimates the economic value of non-motorized and motorized trail use to Arizona residents using the travel cost method.


published Feb 2016

The Emergence of “Fat Bikes” in the USA; Trends, potential consequences and management implications

In the USA, sales and use of “fat bikes” (bicycles with 75–120 mm-wide tires) have increased dramatically in the past five years. These bikes are designed to open new terrain to cyclists, including snow-covered trails and softer ground surfaces impossible to ride with a standard mountain bike. In this paper, we discuss the extent and possible trends of fat bike use, potential impacts, conflicts and land management approaches.


published Jul 2020

The Health Benefits of Motorized Trail Riding

by Trail Riders Fellowship (TRF)

Trail Riding promotes physical activity in those who might otherwise forego exercise altogether. All physical activity is beneficial.


published Jan 2007

The Impact of Aging Populations on Outdoor Recreation

New Report Says Longer Healthy Life Expectancy Multiplies Seniors Competing in Sports and Keeping Fit.


published Apr 2010

The Midtown Greenway and the Social Landscape of Minneapolis, MN

An examination of a new piece of infrastructure that represents an emerging urban form poised to potentially revitalize, reorganize and reshape American cities.


published Mar 2007

The Physiology of Mountain Biking

In recent years, competitive mountain biking has attracted the interest of sport scientists, and a small but growing number of physiological studies have been published. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of this literature and directions for future research.


published Jan 2011

The Power of Trails for Promoting Physical Activity in Communities

by Active Living Research

Promoting physical activity among children and adults is a priority national health objective in the United States. Regular physical activity lowers the risk of chronic diseases and is an important strategy for reversing the obesity epidemic.


published Sep 2005

The San Francisco Bay Trail Project Gap Analysis Study

The Bay Trail Project is a nonprofit organization administered by the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) that plans, promotes and advocates for the implementation of a continuous 500-mile bicycling and hiking path around San Francisco Bay. Two of the most commonly asked questions regarding the Bay Trail: “When will it be done?” and “How much will it cost?”


published Jan 2011

The Sioux Falls MPO Multi-Use Trail Study

by Alta Planning + Design

The Big Sioux trail loop was developed several decades ago to control flooding, but Sioux Falls continues to invest in the trail to connect inter-urban areas. This study includes planning and design processes, appropriate infrastructure, costs, timing, potential obstacles, design standards, implementation policies and funding. It is an aesthetically pleasing plan that presents several options for the trail with maps and graphics to complement it.


published Jan 2005

The Value of Open Space: Evidence from Studies of Non-market Benefits

The authors review is distinguished from other surveys of open space that have been done in recent years by its broad focus on non-use values for all types of open space, and because it reviews primarily, although not exclusively, studies of applications in North America.


published Dec 2004

The Washington & Old Dominion Trail: An Assessment of User Demographics, Preferences, and Economics

The Washington and Old Dominion Trail (W&OD) is a 45-mile long transportation and recreation corridor running from Arlington, Virginia, west to Purcellville.