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Intro | Working
safely | Safety
tools | Brushing tools | Sawing
& chopping tools | Grubbing & Raking
Tools | Digging & Tamping Tools |
Pounding & Hammering Tools | Lifting
and Hauling Tools | Bark Peeling Tools | Survey,
Layout & Measuring Tools | Power Tools
| Miscellaneous Tools | Sources
for Tools & Supplies
Bark Peeling Tools
Part Eight of an illustrated compendium
of trail tools by Jim Schmid
-- download a printable version in Word:
text and cover
Spud (Bark Spud/Peeling Spud): Bark spuds can greatly
facilitate the removal of bark from green logs that will be used
in your trail project. Removing the bark from the log will slow
the decay process and give the wood a longer life. The bark spuds
have a 1- to 4-foot long wood handle and a dished blade with three
cutting edges. All three sides should be sharpened on the top
side only. The blade slides between the bark and the wood. The
best time of the year for removing bark is in the spring.
Safety tip: Push away from the body and keep hands and feet,
as well as other workers, away from the front of the blade.
Draw Knife (Drawknives): A draw knife is used to strip
bark from small-diameter logs or poles for waterbars, turnpikes,
and other timber work. Grasp it by both handles and pull the blade
along the log toward yourself. A draw knife has its handles at
a right angle to the blade whereas a bark knife has handles in
line with the blade. Bark knifes are meant only for smoothing
rough bark—not removing it.
Safety tip: Draw knives are razor sharp so caution is necessary.
Adze (Carpenter Adze): An adze is basically an axe with
a curved blade, pointing inwards at right angles to the handle.
Its used to finish (hew) beams and logs to form a flat surface—such
as the walking surface of a native log bridge. An adze should
be kept very sharp and used only for hewing. It should be handled
very carefully and contact with the ground avoided. It should
always be protected with a sheath.
Safety tip: Exercise caution so an not to cut your feet or
shins. When standing on the log being hewed, the toe of your front
foot should be elevated so that a glancing blow strikes the bottom
of the sole of your boot. Only the back of the heel of the front
foot should be resting on the log.
Survey, Layout and Measuring Tools
Clinometer: Clinometers are used by trail designers during
trail layout to read the percent of grade between two points.
It has a floating scale internally from which a grade is measured.
A clinometer cannot be set to a fixed grade. Hold the clinometer
to your eye and with both eyes open, sight parallel with the ground
(upslope or downslope) to a target (stick or someone your own
height), aiming at a point on the target that is equal to the
height of your eye above the ground. Read directly from the percent
scale. Percent slope, the relationship between the amount of elevational
rise or drop over a horizonal distance. Expressed as a equation:
Percent of Grade = Rise/Run x 100 persent. A section of trail
100 feet long with 10 feet of elevation difference would be a
10 percent grade.
Safety tip: Both eyes must be kept open when sighting through
Abney Level: Hand-held instrument used since the late
1800s for backcountry surveying. Can be used to measure or set
grade of a trail. A protractor mounted on the side of the level
with the appropriate scale can be set to a fixed gradient, at
which point the user sights through the abney to a fixed reference
(usually a second person) until a bubble appears in the crosshair.
When the crosshair bisects the bubble, this indicates the preset
grade on the abney. The Abney has been replaced in recent decades
by the clinometer.
|Flagging (Ribbon/Wire Flag):
Flagging (roll of ribbon or wire flag) comes in a variety of colors
and shapes. Flagging is used as a way of highlighting an area for
trail alignment, construction, or maintenance. Ribbon or flag color
should be chosen so that it is easily identifiable, and does not
blend in with the surrounding terrain. All flagging materials should
be removed once the areas work is completed.
|Measuring Wheel: The measuring
wheel is used to measure distance on the trail. It records the revolutions
of a wheel and hence the distance traveled by a wheel on a trail
or land surface. Measuring wheels can be used to measure distance
for guidebook descriptions and also noted in survey or assessment
forms to pinpoint the location of work to be done along the trail.
|Tape Measures: The open reel
case is made of lightweight polystyrene and is hi-viz blaze orange
for excellent visibility.
|GPS Receiver: GPS, or Global
Positioning Satellite, is a constellation of satellites around the
earth that can be used to identify and store a position anywhere
on the earth. A GPS receiver can be used for gathering waypoints
along a proposed trail corridor or existing trail that indicate
where to built a trail or points for maintenance. These points can
be stored for future reference, and superimposed on an existing
map to quickly identify the trail alignment or maintenance areas.
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