Recommended Resources

Trail-Specific Recommended Resources

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published Jun 2011

Bicycle-Rail Trip Analysis and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Focused Study

by Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority

The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) recently began studying the ways in which bicycling, for transportation and in combination with transit, can reduce automobile use and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first of these focused studies concentrated on the Metro Orange Line and parallel bicycle path. This Bicycle Rail Trip Analysis and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Study looks more broadly at bicycle trips to and from Metro Rail. The purpose of this study is to establish the benefits of providing an integrated transportation system where bicyclists are accommodated at train stations and on trains.


published Jan 2015

Economic Importance of Off-Highway Vehicle Recreation: An Analysis of Idaho Counties

During the period August 2012 through November 2012, the University of Idaho, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Parks and Recreation (IDPR), surveyed Idaho’s registered off-highway-vehicle (OHV) owners. The goal of the survey was to determine the economic importance of OHV use in Idaho during the previous 12 months. The survey sample was drawn from IDPR-registered OHV owners. OHV activities not related to recreation (e.g., work) and out-of-state visitors could not be sampled. Trips and expenditures for OHV recreation in Idaho would be higher if nonresident OHV recreation could be estimated.


published Sep 2005

Lanark County Recreational Trails Business Plan

This document describes the process in developing a Trails Business Plan that supports recreational use as well as economic development.


published Jan 2012

The Association of Natural Elements With Physical Activity Intensity During Trail Use by Older Adults

When promoting trail-use among older adults, natural elements should be considered.


published Aug 2012

The Economic Contributions of Outdoor Recreation: Technical Report on Methods and Findings

This study is an update and expansion of an earlier study of active outdoor recreation produced in 2006 by the Outdoor Industry Association. The 2006 study focused solely on human-powered (i.e. non-motorized) activities. While this study includes the same human-powered activities as the earlier work, an additional survey was conducted to gauge the economic contributions of outdoor recreation.


published Feb 2016

Methodology for Linking Greenways and Trails with Public Transportation in Florida

by Center for Urban Transportation Research

The purpose of this research was to provide a methodology to evaluate how intermodal connections between public transportation and public trails can improve livability in Florida communities.


published May 2020

Improving the Sustainability of the Appalachian Trail

by U.S. Geological Survey

The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (A.T.) is a unique internationally recognized protected natural area encompassing more than 250,000 acres and a 2,190-mile footpath from Maine to Georgia.


published Nov 2018

Outdoor-Industry Jobs

This study was intended to assess current—and projected—employment levels across these sectors with a particular focus on science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) oriented occupations that require “mid-level” education and skills. This education includes post-high school training but stops short of a bachelor’s degree,3 opening the door to a greater number of students who are not focused exclusively on four-year degrees. The study was also designed to identify employer demand for occupations within these four sectors.


published Dec 2008

The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails

by Jeffrey Marion with U.S. Geological Survey

This research investigated the influence of several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service.


published May 2011

Informal and Formal Trail Monitoring Protocols and Baseline Conditions

by U.S. Geological Survey

This research developed and applied state-of-the-art trail condition assessment and monitoring procedures and applied them to the park’s formal and informal (visitor-created) trails.


published Dec 2019

The Influence of Layout on Appalachian Trail Soil Loss, Widening, and Muddiness

by Jeffrey Marion with U.S. Geological Survey, Jeremy Wimpey, Ph.D. with Applied Trails Research

This research investigates the influence of layout and design on the severity of trail degradation.


published Nov 2016

Assessing the Influence of Sustainable Trail Design and Maintenance on Soil Loss

by Jeffrey Marion with U.S. Geological Survey, Jeremy Wimpey, Ph.D. with Applied Trails Research

Results from a review of the literature and three scientific studies are presented to model and clarify the influence of factors that substantially influence trail soil loss and that can be manipulated by trail professionals to sustain high traffic while minimizing soil loss over time.