This research investigated the influence of several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service.
Recreational uses of unsurfaced trails inevitably result in their degradation, with the type and extent of
resource impact influenced by factors such as soil texture, topography, climate, trail design and maintenance, and type and amount of use. Of particular concern, the loss of soil through erosion is generally
considered a significant and irreversible form of trail impact. This research investigated the influence of
several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service. Regression
modeling revealed that trail position, trail slope alignment angle, grade, water drainage, and type of use
are significant determinants of soil loss. The introduction of individual and groups of variables into
a series of regression models provides improved understanding and insights regarding the relative
influence of these variables, informing the selection of more effective trail management actions. Study
results suggest that trail erosion can be minimized by avoiding ‘‘fall-line’’ alignments, steep grades, and
valley-bottom alignments near streams, installing and maintaining adequate densities of tread drainage
features, applying gravel to harden treads, and reducing horse and all-terrain vehicle use or restricting
them to more resistant routes.
This research also sought to develop a more efficient Variable Cross-Sectional Area method for assessing soil loss on trails. This method permitted incorporation of CSA measures in a representative sampling scheme applied to a large (24%) sample of the park’s 526 km trail system. The variety of soil loss measures derived from the Variable CSA method, including extrapolated trail-wide soil loss estimates, permit an objective quantification of soil erosion on recreational trails and roads. Such data support relational analyses to increase understanding of trail degradation, and long-term monitoring of the natural and recreational integrity of the trail system infrastructure.
Attached document published December 2008