The Art of Building Crushed Stone Trails

Crushed stone trails provide a user-friendly, all-season surface for all types and ages of visitors, including strollers, wheelchairs, and road bikes.

by Tony Boone, Owner

Crushed stone trail located above normal floodway by a stream

Arrowhead Trails, Inc. has built over 500 miles of natural surface trails since 1995. Their specialty is machine-built, 48" wide trails for mountain bikers, runners, and hikers. Even though 95% of their new construction is with native soils, they are receiving more requests for soft surface, accessible trails built with 3/8" minus crusher fines; or crushed stone, cinder or rock dust as it is called in other areas.

Whether it's a trail to school in an urban area or a core loop of your open space trail system, crushed stone trails provide a user-friendly, all-season surface for all types and ages of visitors. If built properly crushed stone trails can meet the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines. Accessible trails often service an incredibly diverse range of visitors including: hikers, bikers, runners, strollers, mobility impaired, visually impaired, and wheelchairs.

Accessible crushed stone trails should be designed and constructed at grades less than 8% grade to promote accessible use. Trail tread grades of up to 10% for short distances are allowed but difficult for most visitors seeking an ADA trail to enjoy. Overall trail grade averages of less than 6% will provide the most user-friendly experience and offer the most sustainable natural trail surface if compacted crusher fines are to be used.

Many parks and open space areas are constructing accessible, soft surface trails into their trail systems. In areas with long periods of rain or snow and clay or silt-based soils, park infrastructure trails are often surfaced with concrete or crusher fines to minimize muddy trail conditions and reduce facility maintenance.

Compacting crusher fines with a vibratory plate compactor to produce a solid surface

Compacting crusher fines with a vibratory plate compactor to produce a solid surface

High clay content soils typically cause trails to be slick and muddy when wet. They also take longer to dry out since their extra fine particles don't give up water easily. Trail treads surfaced with 4-6 inches of compacted fines over a landscape fabric can eliminate many of the problems associated with soils and climate. Landscape fabrics or geotextiles are also key to preventing vegetation from growing into the trail and preventing commingling of the crusher fines with the natural soils.Since crusher fine trails usually cost in excess of $10.00 per linear foot it is important to construct them right the first time. Success relies on getting the right materials and installing them correctly. Mistakes often result in poor compaction, soft surface conditions, non-accessibility, and inevitably costly repairs.

Crusher fines in their purest form have no soil mixed in, they are pure crushed stone. Gravel and crusher fines differ from one another in that gravel is screened to remove the fines which contain the natural binders/cements. Gravels remain loose because of dead air or pore space within the matrix which allow them to drain well and resist compaction.

Crusher fines retain their inherent soil cements and binders which promote soil compaction. Fines that contain too many rounded particles (like some decomposed granites) are more difficult to interlock and often yield a loose and unconsolidated surface. Angular particles like andesite, dolomite, and certain types of granite can easily be wetted and compacted to meet the ADAAG.

A good indication of the strength of a rock binder is the hardness of the parent rock. The harder the source rock, the stronger the binders will be. Crushed rock contains the original rock cements and binders within the rock dust. These binders, combined with water and then compacted with a vibratory roller or plate compactor should produce a solid, compacted surface that resists significant deformation from hiking boots and mountain bike tires. We frequently see baby strollers and road bikes using our crushed stone trails.

A typical crusher fines trail at Bluff Lake Nature Center, Denver, CO

A typical crusher fines trail at Bluff Lake Nature Center, Denver, CO

A sieve analysis for trails, using 3/8" minus crusher fines, typically describes the material with the following specifications:

  • 3/8 inch sieve - 100% passing
  • 1/4 inch sieve - 65% passing
  • 3/16 inch sieve - 50% passing
  • 1/8 inch sieve - 35% passing
  • 1/16 inch sieve - 25% passing

If the surface of a crusher fines trail becomes loose and uncompacted over time it can often be wetted, reshaped and recompacted provided the fines have not sifted to the bottom and the larger particles floated to the top. Poor compaction can be the result of a variety of influences that include improper wetting and compacting during installation, lack of particle angularity, trail grades greater than 6%, and/or inadequate amounts of natural soil cements or lack of fines in the parent material that act as binders. Some “refreshing” of trail surfacing material is required on a routine basis. Trail tread grades over 6% will require significantly more maintenance since they tend to unravel or erode faster.

Published August 01, 2008

About the Author

In 25 years, Tony Boone has passionately led crews in sculpting over 800 kilometers of shared-use and purpose-built trails for mountain bicyclists of all ages and abilities around the world. His experience includes professional trail building companies, governmental agencies, and non-profit organizations. His passion is creating sustainable, kinesthetically, and aesthetically diverse trails that mountain bikers love to ride.

He is highly skilled on the utilization and training of state-of-the-art trail technology like the Sutter 500 Trail Dozer, SWECO 480 Trail Dozer, miniature/micro excavators, loaders, tracked carriers, ATV rakes & harrows, hydraulic & gas powered drilling, and blasting with Magnum Blaster. Tony is a pioneer in the evolution and art of creating sustainable, machine-built trails for mountain bikers.

Tony’s accomplishments include: establishing the first mountain bike patrol in Colorado in 1989, training eight IMBA/Subaru Trail Care Crews (1997-2011), inspiring the IMBA Trail Solutions Program (2001), and assisting with both IMBA books (Trail Solutions: IMBA’s Guide to Building Sweet Singletrack and Managing Mountain Bikes: IMBA’s Guide to Providing Great Riding). He has been an active member of the Professional Trail Builders Association and American Trails since 1995. His primary focus since 2010 has been assisting IMBA develop their international markets and creating the next generation of kinesthetically diverse “flow-based” tracks.

Tony’s current experience with his own company, Tony Boone Trails, LLC based in Salida, CO, includes partnering with IMBA and Trek China in planning, designing, and constructing the first professionally built trail system for mountain bikers in Chengdu, China. He conducted numerous site visits for bike parks in Sichuan and Hebei provinces. Tony also partnered with IMBA AU and Sutter Equipment to import the first trail dozer to Australia and provide demonstrations of dozer-built flow trails in New South Wales, Victoria, and S. Australia. Other projects include planning, designing, and constructing purpose-built trails for riders in Hong Kong, Philippines, and the US (Colorado, Idaho & Alabama). Tony has also conducted IMBA Trailbuilding Schools and Master Trailbuilder Courses.

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