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published Mar 2019

Pedal-Assist Mountain Bikes: A Pilot Study Comparison of the Exercise Response, Perceptions, and Beliefs of Experienced Mountain Bikers

This study aimed to compare conventional mountain bike and eMTB use. This was done by investigating 2 questions: (1) What proportion of exercise response is retained for an experienced mountain biker while using an eMTB when compared with a conventional mountain bike? and (2) What are the perceptions and beliefs of experienced mountain bikers toward eMTBs both before and after riding an eMTB?


published Feb 2019

Landowner Outreach and Trail Planning

by Mendocino Land Trust

The most important part of the planning process is building relationships with the people affected by the proposed trail and its potential users.


published Feb 2019

National Trails System Reference Manual 45

by National Park Service

This document is designed for National Trails System partners: Federal trail administrators, local land managers and landowners, volunteer partners, and State and Tribal agencies. It focuses on America’s national scenic and historic trails with only brief mention of national recreation trails and connecting-and-side trails. It provides background to Director’s Order #45, National Trails System (see Section 2.6).


published Feb 2019

Bikeway selection guide

The Bikeway Selection Guide from the Federal Highway Administration will help planners make informed decisions about the selection of bike- way types. This guide emphasizes engineering judgment, design flexibility, documentation, and experimentation.


published Feb 2019

Iowa Off-Highway Vehicle Operations, Operators, Expenditures And Economic Impacts

Iowa off-highway vehicle owners spent approximately $72.4 million in 2018 on in-state operating expenses and related personal expenses. Total Iowa asset purchase and operating/personal expenditures generated approximately 1,018 jobs in the Iowa economy paying an average of $42,850 annually. Off-highway vehicle owners spent about $28.9 million outside the state of Iowa in 2018. If that had been spent in-state, it would have generated $34.9 million in Iowa industrial output and 374 jobs paying annual incomes of $31,180 per job.


published Jan 2019

Mountain Biker Attitudes and Perceptions of eMTBs (electric‐mountain bikes)

This study found that were many misconceptions about what constitutes an eMTB. These misconceptions seem to foster fears and concerns about trail conflict, access, and the morality of individuals using eMTBs.


published Jan 2019

FAQ: Do the low stream crossings for trails and greenways conform to accessibility guidelines?

by American Trails Staff

Low water crossings are designed to allow normal flow under the trail, and to be over-topped during seasonal floods.


published Jan 2019

Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans (SCORPs)

by American Trails Staff

The Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) serves as a guide for all public outdoor recreation in urban and rural neighborhoods, cities, and regions for a given state. Each state must prepare a SCORP every five years to be eligible for funding from the Land and Water Conservation Fund.


published Jan 2019

Economic, Environmental and Social Benefits of Recreational Trails in Washington State

by Washington Recreation and Conservation Office

This report evaluates the economic, environmental, and social benefits of outdoor recreation activities associated with trails and their nexus with the economy of Washington.


published Jan 2019

Oregon Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Participation and Priorities

Spending by Oregon residents on OHV riding trips (local and distant, day and multi-day) was an estimated $100 million per year across the state. In turn, this expenditure contributed 869 jobs, $35 million in value added, and $23 million in labor income.


published Jan 2019

Backcountry Discovery Routes® and Tourism: How Adventure Motorcyclists Can Help Your Community

In 2017, BDR routes generated $17.3 million in new tourism expenditures, with the average traveling party spending $3,769 on their BDR trip.


published Jan 2019

Economic Impact of Off-Highway Recreation in the State of Arizona

by Arizona State University

From 2016 to 2017 Arizona State University conducted a study to measure the economic impact of OHV recreation, by retained and out of state visitors, on the State of Arizona.