Trail-Specific Recommended Resources

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published Jan 24, 2019

Mountain Biker Attitudes and Perceptions of eMTBs (electric‐mountain bikes)

This study found that were many misconceptions about what constitutes an eMTB. These misconceptions seem to foster fears and concerns about trail conflict, access, and the morality of individuals using eMTBs.


published Feb 16, 2016

The Emergence of “Fat Bikes” in the USA; Trends, potential consequences and management implications

In the USA, sales and use of “fat bikes” (bicycles with 75–120 mm-wide tires) have increased dramatically in the past five years. These bikes are designed to open new terrain to cyclists, including snow-covered trails and softer ground surfaces impossible to ride with a standard mountain bike. In this paper, we discuss the extent and possible trends of fat bike use, potential impacts, conflicts and land management approaches.


published Jan 1, 2016

Environmental Impacts from Mtn Bicycles, Electric Mtn Bicycles, & Motorcycles

by International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA)

The emergence of electric bicycles, commonly known as e-bikes, is a rapidly growing component of the bicycle market in the US. As a transportation option, they represent an opportunity to reduce vehicle use and emissions, as well as the physical barriers to cycling. For use on trails, they present similar opportunities to reduce barriers to cycling but, as a new use, present new challenges for trail management.


published Jul 20, 2015

E-bikes in the Mainstream

Several themes emerged from this review of the e-bike literature. E-bike use has grown dramatically over the past decade and there is little evidence to suggest this growth will slow in the coming decade.


published Apr 30, 2014

2014 WMBC Rider Survey

by Headwaters Economics

The WMBC conducted a survey to target trail users recreating on Galbraith Mountain and elsewhere in Whatcom County. This survey was done entirely online utilizing surveymonkey web-based software.


published Dec 28, 2013

Experiences of electric bicycle users in the Sacramento, California area

The study asked e-bike users in the greater Sacramento area about the reasons why they chose to invest in an e-bike, the ways in which they use their e-bikes, positive and negative aspects of using e-bikes, and reactions from friends and family members.


published May 13, 2011

FAQ: Constructing an air station inflator on bike trails

by American Trails Staff

Bicycle repair stations can now be purchased from several vendors.


published May 31, 2009

Sustainable Trail Development

by International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA)

What is a sustainable trail? Building a sustainable trail system takes into account many factors. Most importantly, a sustainable trail should have as little impact to the environment as possible; this is accomplished through proper trail planning, design, construction and maintenance. A properly built trail will last for generations to come with little maintenance needed and will blend into the natural surroundings.


published Jun 2, 2008

Comparing Relative Impacts of Various Trail User Groups

by Woody Keen with Trail Dynamics LLC

A summary of research and studies on factors that affect trails management strategy and determining uses for each trail.


published Jan 1, 2008

Emerging Trends in Pocket Bike Parks

A presentation exploring bike parks with pump-tracks, skills areas, dirt jumps and freeride areas.


published Oct 1, 2003

Natural Resource Impacts of Mountain Biking

A summary of scientific studies that compare mountain biking to other forms of trail travel.


published Apr 1, 2001

Studies Weigh Mountain-Biking, Hiking Impacts

New research suggests that mountain suggests that mountain bikes and boots leave equal wear and tear on trails. How bikers ride and where hikers step may make more of a difference.